TESTTest
TermDescription
AndrologistA medical doctor or Ph.D. who specializes in the study of male reproduction.
Anovulation A condition in which a woman does not ovulate (produce and release eggs). Menses may still occur
ARTRefers to assisted reproductive technologies, and includes a variety of procedures, techniques and testing that may be used to achieve a pregnancy.
Assisted HatchingA laboratory procedure that dissolves an embryo surface to improve the likelihood of implantation using chemicals or lasers.
Azoospermia The absence of sperm in the seminal fluid, usually caused by a blockage or an impairment of sperm production
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Beta hCG Test (BhCG)A blood test to determine pregnancy, it gives a positive reading if human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is present in the blood
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CBC (Complete Blood Count)A routine preoperative blood test that gives information regarding infection and anemia.
Cervical MucusSecretions produced by the cervix. The thickness of the mucus varies according to the phase of the menstrual cycle. In the days just before ovulation, the mucus is easily penetrable by sperm.
CervixThe lower section and opening of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina. Sperm pass through the cervix into the uterus during intercourse. It dilates during labor to allow the passage of the infant.
Chemical PregnancyA very early pregnancy detectable only by a blood test for hCG. The hCG level in the blood rises high enough to yield a positive pregnancy test, but then stops rising and does not lead to a clinical pregnancy, but may result in a very early miscarriage.
Clinical PregnancyA pregnancy that is confirmed by a fetal heartbeat on ultrasound, around the 6-7 week gestational age and onwards.
Clomiphene Citrate (Clomid/Serophene)A synthetic drug used to stimulate production of follicle stimulating hormone and lutenizing hormone. Often used to treat milder forms of ovulation failure or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).
Corpus Luteum The corpus luteum is made from a follicle that housed a maturing egg. It releases progesterone, a hormone that preserves the uterine lining.
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Ectopic PregnancyA pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants outside the uterine cavity (usually in the fallopian tube, the ovary or the abdominal cavity). May require surgical intervention or use of medications (Methotrexate) to stop growth
Egg VitrificationRecent cryopreservation technique which "flash freezes" eggs, preventing the formation of ice crystals in the cell, which can rupture the eggs delicate membranes and damage its structure
Embryo donor recipientAn intended parent who will undergo an embryo transfer of a donated embryo for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves and their partner (if applicable)
Embryo donor(s)A person or persons who choose(s) to donate their embryo(s) to a known or anonymous recipient for the purpose of achieving pregnancy for the recipient and their partner (if applicable)
EmbryologistsProfessionals trained in advanced laboratory techniques who prepare and provide the necessary conditions for the fertilization of eggs. They also facilitate the growth, development, maturation, and preservation of embryos.
EndometriosisThe presence of endometrial tissue (the uterine lining) in areas outside of the uterus such as the tubes, ovaries and peritoneal cavity. This condition can cause painful menstruation and infertility.
EndometriumThe glandular membrane lining the uterus where implantation occurs.
EstrogenA group of female hormones responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogen is produced mainly by the ovaries from the onset of puberty until menopause.
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Fallopian TubeEither of a pair of tubes that conduct eggs from an ovary to the uterus. Natural fertilization takes place as an egg travels through a fallopian
Female Factor InfertilityThe condition when a couple's infertility is attributed to the woman.
FertilizationPenetration of an egg by a sperm and the fusion of genetic material.
Fetal Reduction (or Selective Reduction)A medical procedure to decrease the number of fetuses in a multiple gestation.
FollicleFluid-filled sac on the ovary that (usually) contains a ripening egg. The follicle can release an egg at ovulation. A physician can retrieve the egg from the follicle during an ART treatment cycle.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)A purified or recombinant form of follicle stimulating hormone, FSH can be injected under the skin to stimulate development and maturation of follicles.
Follicular PhaseThe portion of the menstrual cycle when ovarian follicle development takes place, (usually the first 14 or so days after menses begins).
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GameteA sperm or an egg.
Gamete donorA person who donates oocytes or sperm to a known or anonymous recipient for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for the recipient and their partner (if applicable)
Gamete donor recipientAn intended parent who will undergo ART procedures using either donor sperm or donor oocytes for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves and their partner (if applicable)
Gamete providerA person who provides either the oocyte or sperm for an embryo which will be transferred to a surrogate for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves and their partner (if applicable)
GestationThe period of fetal development in the uterus from conception to birth, usually 40 weeks in humans.
Gestational SurrogateA person who undergoes an embryo transfer in order to achieve and carry a pregnancy for another person/couple, who will be the intended parent(s) of the child. the gestational surrogate is not genetically linked to the embryo.
GnRH (Gonadotropin Release Hormone)A hormone that controls the synthesis and release of the pituitary hormones FSH and LH. GnRH is produced by the hypothalamus.
GonadotropinA hormone that can stimulate the testicles to produce sperm or the ovaries to produce an egg.
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Human Chronic Gonadotropin (hCG)A hormone secreted by the placenta that preserves the pregnancy by prolonging the life of the corpus luteum and stimulating progesterone production. A pregnancy test is positive when hCG is detected. It can be administered therapeutically (Pregnyl or Profasi) to help solve some infertility problems.
HysteroscopyA surgical procedure in which a telescope-like device is inserted through the cervix to view the inside of the uterus. This procedure is sometimes performed in conjunction with a laparoscopy.
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Idiopathic Infertility (Unexplained Infertility)The term used when no reason can be found to explain the cause of a couple's infertility.
ImplantationThe embedding of the fertilized egg in the lining of the uterus.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)A procedure in which one or more eggs, each removed from a ripe follicle, is fertilized by a sperm outside the human body.
Intended Parent(s)A person or couple who intend to parent a child who is conceived through third party reproduction. and intended parent may provide their gamete for the creation of an embryo
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)A laboratory procedure in which a single sperm is directly inserted into an individual egg.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)The introduction of specially prepared sperm directly into the uterus through the cervix.
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LaparoscopyA surgical procedure in which a telescope-like device is inserted through a small incision near the navel to view the pelvic cavity, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus.
Luteal PhaseThe days of a menstrual cycle following ovulation and ending with menses (usually lasting between 12 and 14 days).
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)A hormone that causes the ovary to release a mature egg (ovulation). In the male, LH stimulates testosterone production. LH is secreted by the anterior pituitary. In the female, LH stimulates progesterone production after ovulation has occurred.
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Male Factor InfertilityThe condition when a couple's infertility is attributed to the man.
MyomectomyThe surgical removal of non-cancerous fibroid tumors originating from the wall of the uterus
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OligozoospermiaA condition in which the number of sperm in a semen sample are abnormally low.
OocyteA female reproductive cell also known as ovum or egg cell.
Oocyte donation recipientAn intended parent or a surrogate who will undergo ART procedures using donor oocytes for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves or for intended parents (if applicable)
Oocyte donorA person who donates oocytes to a known or anonymous recipient for the purposes of achieving a pregnancy for the intended parent(s)
Oocyte RetrievalA surgical procedure, usually under sedation, to collect the eggs contained with the ovarian follicles before ovulation. The physician inserts a needle into the follicle, draws out the follicle's fluid and egg through the needle, and then places the flu
Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS)A possible side effect of medically induced ovulation, characterized by swollen, painful ovaries and, in some cases, the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and chest.
OvulationRelease of a mature egg from a follicle at the surface of the ovary.
Ovulation InductionThe therapeutic use of drugs or hormones to stimulate egg development and release. Useful hormones and hormone-based medications include clomiphene citrate, Pergonal, Humegon, Repronex, Follistim, Gonal F, Bravelle and hCG (Pergonol, Pregnyl or Ovidrel)
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ProgesteroneA hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary after ovulation has occurred. Also produced by the placenta during pregnancy.
ProlactinA hormone produced by the pituitary. The level of prolactin in the blood can reveal hypothalmic-pituitary disorders that may hinder ovulation.
Primary infertilitySomeone or a couple who is struggling to have their first child. 
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Secondary InfertilityThe inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy after having given birth to one or more children.
Semen Analysis (SA)A microscopic examination of freshly ejaculated semen to evaluate the number of sperm (count), the percentage of moving sperm (motility), and the size and shape of the sperm (morphology).
Sperm donorA person who donates sperm to a known or anonymous recipient for the purposes of achieving a pregnancy for intended parent(s)
Sperm donation recipientAn intended parent or a surrogate who will undergo ART procedures to carry a pregnancy using donor sperm for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves or intended parents (if applicable).
Sperm providerA person who provides sperm for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy for themselves and their partner (if applicable)
Sperm WashA technique for separating sperm from seminal fluid.
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Testicular BiopsyA small excision of testicular tissue to determine the ability of the cells to produce normal sperm. Or to retrieve sperm for use in IVF/ICSI.
TestosteroneThe most potent male sex hormone; produced in the testes.
Traditional surrogateA person who undergoes an insemination from a sperm donor or sperm provider in order to achieve and carry a pregnancy for another person/couple, who will be the intended parent(s) of the child. the intended parent(s) may or may not be genetically linked to the embryo. a traditional surrogate is therefore both an egg donor and the carrier for the pregnancy.
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UterusThe hollow, muscular organ in the woman that holds and nourishes the fetus until the time of birth.
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